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Bitcoin ETFs: Everything You Need to Know

Bitcoin ETFs SEC
By Nicolo Finazzi
Nicolo Finazzi

13 Min

September 11, 2023

In recent years, the financial landscape has witnessed a fascinating convergence between the world of blockchain technology and the traditional financial sector. A significant manifestation of this intersection is the growing interest surrounding the filing of Bitcoin Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs) by several prominent financial firms such as Blackrock and Fidelity. This paper wants to delve into the core concepts of ETFs, explore the significance of Bitcoin in today’s financial ecosystem, and investigate the relationship between these two concepts.

ETFs: Exchange Traded Funds

Before diving into the current state of Bitcoin ETFs, we believe it is necessary to clarify what an ETF is and how it is developed and traded in traditional markets.

Definition and Purpose of ETFs

Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs) are investment vehicles that offer a simple yet powerful way for individuals to invest in a diverse range of assets, much like mutual funds. The key distinction lies in how ETFs are bought and sold on stock exchanges in the same way as individual stocks. Their primary goal is to provide investors with exposure to a diversified portfolio of assets, such as stocks, bonds, commodities, indexes, or even cryptocurrencies, without requiring them to buy and own each individual asset directly.

Structure and Mechanics of ETFs

The structure of an ETF is designed for efficiency and flexibility. The fund manager constructs the ETF to track the performance of a specific index or asset category. This is achieved by holding a representative sample of the underlying assets or, in some cases, through derivatives. An "Authorized Participant" – typically a large financial institution – helps create or redeem ETF shares based on investor demand.

ETFs trade throughout the trading day on stock exchanges, just like regular stocks. This trading flexibility allows investors to buy or sell shares at market prices in real-time. The market price of an ETF share usually closely aligns with the net asset value (NAV) of the underlying assets.

To illustrate the mechanics of an ETF in action, let's consider an ETF designed to track the S&P 500 Index, a benchmark representing the performance of 500 large companies listed on US stock exchanges. In this case, the ETF's goal would be to mirror the returns of the S&P 500 by holding a selection of stocks from the index (e.g., Apple, Microsoft). This allows investors to gain exposure to a broad range of popular companies without having to purchase each individual stock. The ETF's shares are traded on stock exchanges throughout the day, making it accessible to investors who seek the S&P 500's performance without directly buying all 500 shares.

Advantages and Drawbacks of ETFs

ETFs offer several advantages for investors. They provide diversification, reducing the risk associated with investing in individual assets. They offer transparency since the underlying holdings are disclosed daily. Additionally, ETFs often have lower expense ratios compared to mutual funds, making them cost-effective.

However, there are drawbacks to consider as well. ETF prices can deviate slightly from the NAV due to market supply and demand dynamics. Also, while they offer diversification, investors might not have control over the specific assets within the ETF. Moreover, some ETFs employ complex strategies that might not be easily understandable to all investors.

In essence, ETFs provide a user-friendly way for investors to access a diversified portfolio of assets, offering the best of both worlds between individual stocks and mutual funds.

Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies

With a clear understanding of ETFs established, we now turn our attention to the second key concept: cryptocurrencies and, particularly, Bitcoin.

Brief Overview of Cryptocurrencies

Cryptocurrencies are digital currencies that employ cryptography for secure transactions and control of new units. Unlike traditional currencies issued by governments, cryptocurrencies operate on decentralized networks based on blockchain technology. This technology ensures transparency, security, and immutability of transactions.

What is Bitcoin?

At the forefront of cryptocurrencies stands Bitcoin, often referred to as the pioneer and the digital gold of the crypto world. Created in 2008 by an individual or group under the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto, Bitcoin introduced the concept of a peer-to-peer electronic cash system. It operates on a decentralized network of computers, known as nodes, that validate and record transactions on the blockchain.

Bitcoin price history since 2011. Source: CoinMarketCap

Bitcoin is finite in supply and is capped at 21 million coins. This ensures scarcity, much like what happens with precious metals. Its transactions are irreversible and pseudonymous, providing a level of privacy while ensuring transparency through the public blockchain ledger.

Importance and Adoption of Bitcoin

Bitcoin's importance is twofold. First, it addresses traditional financial limitations by offering borderless, permissionless transactions that can occur without intermediaries like banks. This opens doors for financial inclusion, especially in regions with limited access to traditional banking services.

Second, Bitcoin has attracted significant attention from institutional investors, corporations, and even governments. Its decentralized nature and the potential to act as a hedge against traditional financial market volatility have sparked interest as an alternative asset class. This interest is a driving force behind the push for Bitcoin ETFs, as they would allow investors to indirectly gain exposure to Bitcoin's value without holding the cryptocurrency directly.

The Concept of Bitcoin ETFs

In the following chapters, we will build upon this introduction to explore the intricacies of Bitcoin ETFs and the potential impact their approval might hold in the world of finance.

Definition of Bitcoin ETFs

Bitcoin Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF) combines the world of traditional finance with the realm of cryptocurrencies. Just like traditional ETFs, a Bitcoin ETF allows investors to gain exposure to the price movements of Bitcoin without needing to own or store the cryptocurrency directly. This is particularly appealing to those who may be intrigued by the potential of Bitcoin and crypto but are hesitant about the complexities of purchasing and securing digital assets.

The primary purpose of a Bitcoin ETF is to provide a regulated and familiar investment vehicle through which investors can participate in the cryptocurrency market. It bridges the gap between the novel world of cryptocurrencies and the established systems of traditional financial markets.

Bitcoin ETFs Structure

A Bitcoin ETF operates by holding Bitcoin as its underlying asset, similar to how traditional ETFs hold baskets of stocks or bonds. However, owning, storing, and securing Bitcoin can be intricate for many investors. Therefore, the ETF structure simplifies this process. An ETF sponsor, often a financial institution, manages the ETF and handles tasks such as custody, storage, and security of the Bitcoin.

The ETF's shares are listed and traded on traditional stock exchanges, just like any other stock. Investors can buy or sell these shares during trading hours, making the investment process accessible and familiar. The price of the ETF shares typically mirrors the price of Bitcoin, providing investors with exposure to Bitcoin's price movements.

Potential Benefits of Bitcoin ETFs

Bitcoin ETFs bring several potential benefits to the table. First, they offer a regulated and secure way for traditional investors to enter the cryptocurrency market. The familiarity of stock exchanges and regulated investment vehicles can ease concerns related to fraud and security breaches often associated with the cryptocurrency space.

Second, the introduction of Bitcoin ETFs could lead many new institutional and retail investors into the cryptocurrency market. This increased participation could generate greater liquidity and potentially reduce the volatility that cryptocurrencies have been known for.

Current Landscape: Bitcoin ETF Filings

The current landscape of Bitcoin ETF filings faces regulatory obstacles, which are extending the timeline for potential approvals. With this chapter, we want to give a clear picture of who are the financial firms keen on Bitcoin ETFs, the significance of these ETFs for the market, and the pivotal role of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in shaping their future.

Financial Firms Interested in Bitcoin ETFs

Numerous financial firms, BlackRock among them, have entered the arena by filing applications for Bitcoin ETFs. This surge of interest breathed new life into discussions surrounding cryptocurrencies. The idea of spot Bitcoin ETFs has captivated investors within the crypto space and beyond. This further highlights the broader financial world's growing engagement with digital assets.

Here are the Bitcoin ETF applications currently being evaluated:

  1. BlackRock: the world’s largest asset manager, with over $9 trillion in AUM, filed for the ETF On June 15, 2023.
  2. WisdomTree: the New York-based asset manager filed its first request in 2021. It then filed a new one in mid-2023 after facing rejection.
  3. Galaxy Digital and Invesco: the two firms jointly filed a Bitcoin ETF on September 22, 2021. They then made a new application in mid-2023 after BlackRock filed its own.
  4. Valkyrie Investments: asset manager Valkyrie filed for its first Bitcoin ETF in January 2021. After rejections, it filed another application in June 2023.
  5. Ark Invest: Cathie Wood's Ark Invest filed for the Ark21Shares ETF in June 2021. It refiled twice after initial rejections and added a surveillance-sharing arrangement in June 2023.
  6. VanEck: VanEck's first attempt came all the way back in 2018. This was withdrawn in 2019, and a second attempt was filed in December 2020. After facing rejection in November 2021, the firm filed its third application in mid-2022, which was rejected in March 2023. It was refiled on June 22, 2023.
  7. Fidelity/Wise Origin: Fidelity filed its ETF application in March 2021 and got rejected in January 2022. The company then refiled in June 2023 and added Coinbase as partner.
  8. Bitwise: Bitwise Asset Management originally filed an application in October 2021. After BlackRock application, the firm filed for another proposal in June 2023.
  9. GlobalX: joined the ETF race in 2021. The fund then refiled its application in August 2023.
Spot Bitcoin ETF decision deadlines. Source: Bloomberg/Twitter

Recent Industry Updates

Moreover, on August 29, a federal court ruled that the SEC must review its rejection of Grayscale Investments' attempt to convert the Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (GBTC) into an ETF. The GBTC is currently the largest Bitcoin fund traded over-the-counter, with $14 billion in AUM. The win holds immense significance for the crypto industry, and although it doesn't guarantee an immediate ETF listing for Grayscale, it still sets a precedent for future applications, including those from major players like BlackRock and Fidelity.

Currently, the SEC has delayed until October making a decision on all of the spot bitcoin ETF applications, according to agency filings on Thursday.

Importance of Bitcoin ETFs

Bitcoin ETFs bear the potential to be a game-changer for the cryptocurrency market. The entry of regulated investment vehicles such as ETFs could attract institutional and retail investors who have been hesitant due to the intricate regulatory landscape and security concerns. This participation could contribute to increased market liquidity and reduced volatility, leading cryptocurrencies closer to mainstream recognition.

The current market sentiment reflects a blend of anticipation and uncertainty. The entrance of important financial firms such as BlackRock has surely helped the industry in getting recognized as a valid investment option. At the moment, developments surrounding Bitcoin ETF filings are also impacting cryptocurrency prices, underscoring the many implications these approvals hold.

The Role of the U.S. SEC

Official logo of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) plays a central role in the evaluation and approval of Bitcoin ETFs. The SEC is in charge of approving or rejecting these filings, and recent updates highlight that it will extend its evaluation period. This is now set for October 2023, with possible delays until early 2024. The deliberation arises from the complicated challenges of integrating the rapidly evolving cryptocurrency landscape into conventional financial markets.

The concerns voiced by the SEC are multiple. While Bitcoin futures-linked ETFs (available in the US since 2021) offer exposure without direct exchange engagement, spot Bitcoin ETFs entail holding actual Bitcoin for more direct investment. This distinction introduces complexities and potential risks that the SEC must navigate.

However, two more recent events have increased optimism among industry players. First, the outcome of the SEC vs. Ripple case, won by Ripple with the ruling of XRP as a non-security. Second, BlackRock's establishment of a "surveillance-sharing agreement" with Coinbase, which underscores the evolving dynamics in the regulation. The speculation is that such arrangements could align with the SEC's criteria for granting ETF approvals. Analysts now believe that the probability of the spot Bitcoin ETF being approved by the SEC is close to 65%. This is partly due to BlackRock's involvement.

Bitcoin ETFs around the world

While the US has taken a more cautious approach, several other nations have advanced faster. Notably, countries like Canada and Brazil have embraced the concept, with several operational Bitcoin ETFs. Additionally, Europe has witnessed the emergence of exchange-traded notes (ETNs), which are similar financial instruments. Moreover, the first official spot Bitcoin ETF has gone live in Europe recently with the Jacobi FT Wilshere Bitcoin ETF. The fund is now officially traded on Euronext Amsterdam nearly two years after it was first approved.


Getting the green light for a Bitcoin ETF is not easy, and so far, this has been a long, difficult ride. Since the early days in 2013 with the Winklevoss Twins’ first attempt, to the more recent launch of the ProShares BTC futures ETF in 2021, and now with Blackrock’s application, it's been a mix of waiting, learning, and adapting.

The U.S. SEC has expressed multiple times its thoughts concerning multiple aspects. These include equitable trading practices, potential market manipulation, and the unique attributes of Bitcoin. These concerns have translated into delays and denials, but the space has evolved. Now we are witnessing the participation of more established companies, better equipped to tackle these challenges head-on. As the journey progresses, the pursuit of a Bitcoin ETF serves as a testament to the transformative potential of cryptocurrencies within conventional financial systems. At Lab51, we believe this ongoing battle between disruptive technologies and regulations represents the coming of a new era, one that will eventually shape the future of finance.